Transnationalism, is a process by which migrants, through their daily life activities create social fields that crosses national boundaries.
Transnationalism as a condition is actually living in another country other than one’s country of origin. The two are intertwined. It has been realized that sending and receiving countries [of migrants] constitutes one single field of analysis which has come to be known as transnationalism.Transnationalism as a concept has multiple disciplinary approaches.These could be economic, social ,cultural and geographical.Two are intertwined
Globalization aids the intensification of world-wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.Sometimes transnational populations are diasporic, dual citizenship/nationality through naturalization, marriage and birth.
Most immigrant communities do not de-link themselves from their home country; instead, they keep and nourish their linkages to their place of origin .Transnationalism broadly refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation states.
It is characterized by sustained cross-border relationships, exchange, affiliations (kin and social), loyalties– social formations spanning nation-states.
Migrants recreate their national culture in their host countries, while maintaining close ties with their native land. Transnationalism is a product of the ever increasing forces of Globalization. Information and communication technologies crisscross national boundaries with relative ease, creating the possibility for increased and intensified forms of communication. New technology like Broadband Internet, Instant Messaging, Email, Skype, Low cost Air Travel connecting long distance networks with increasing speed and efficiency .
There is a close link between Transnationalism and global capitalism.It has shifted capital and labor across borders. As capital investments flow from high wage Core countries to low wage Periphery regions, labor shifts take place in both and Identity and cultural models spread.
Culture does not just “flow” one way. Politics of recognition plus transnational bifocality (ability to see the world through different “lenses”, different languages, different cultural models) leading to: ubiquity, salience and the public display of cross-border multiple identities.
The result is that the nation-state is challenged by economic globalization, multi-lateral political agreements, multiculturalism- threats from ‘above’ and ’below’. Migrant transnationalism adds homeland-oriented socio-economic and political activity that brings forth questions of ‘loyalty’ and ‘allegiance’ of migrants.
Contrary to the earlier beliefs that integration based on assimilation principles that aimed at breaking migrant communities for easier integration,is has been realized that multiple attachments do not hamper integration in the country of settlement. Why? Because two or more sets of attachment do not necessarily compete with each other. When we accept the fact that people are attached to their countries of origin, we realize it gives migrants the self-confidence to interact much more dynamically and creatively with the cultural lives of the country of settlement.
Some data has shown in places where dual citizenship is offered or policies are newly relaxed, immigrant naturalization has increased.Integration of immigrant populations into mainstream social order seems to operate smoothest when immigrant populations can move at their own speed.